The City of San Marino is the capital of the Republic of San Marino, located on Mount Titano.
It is the third most populated village in the country (after Borgo Maggiore and Dogana, part of Serravalle) as well as the capital of the homonymous castle (4 211 inhabitants with an extension of 7,09 km²), which also includes some "curazie" (villages ) including Murata.
The legend traces the foundation of the City of San Marino to 301, the work of San Marino deacon. After obtaining a municipal statute in 1295, it expanded its territory until it reached today's borders in 1463 after the battles against the Malatesta.
The Palazzo Pubblico in neo-Gothic style, was rebuilt on the foundations of the original "Parva Domus Communis" in Romanesque style by the architect Francesco Azzurri (1894), the basilica of San Marino, the church of San Francesco with annexed 14th-century art gallery , the church of San Pietro, the State Museum, the Ara dei Volontari, the Titano Theater. Also two of the three towers on the Titan can be visited.
La Rocca, also known as Guaita or Prima Torre, is the largest and oldest of the three fortresses that dominate the city of San Marino.
The word Guaita, still present in the local dialect means "to guard" and probably derives from the German "Weite".
After the last restoration of 1930, the Rocca was made accessible to visitors.
Numerous interventions of restoration and reinforcement modified the structure of the Tower (1475, 1481, 1502, 1549, 1615, 1623) but without removing the primitive roughness of the same.
The central nucleus of the tower was a watchtower and shelter for the first inhabitants of Mount Titano and dates back to the eleventh century. Two defensive walls protect the tower: The outer walls, crowned with battlements and reinforced by corner towers, were already part of the first round of walls built to defend the city
The inner wall is the oldest. Accessible via an elevated entrance, it encloses the Bell Tower, the Tower of the Penna and the lodgings of the legions, later transformed into prisons.
The tower has a pentagonal plan and has no foundations because it rests directly on the rock of the mountain. A baroque coat of arms of the Republic, transported by the old Palazzo Pubblico, adorns the front door while in the courtyard houses some pieces of artillery, two mortars donated by King Vittorio Emanuele II and two cannons with which the Guardia di Rocca fires blanks during days of celebration, a gift from Vittorio Emanuele III.
May 14th, 2018
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